Egypt Had a LOT of Pharaohs

There are a few Pharaohs who are essentially “household names” – such as King Tut (Tutankhamun), Ramses II (Ramesses the Great), Akhenaten, Khufu, and Amenhotep (the III). Until I looked up a list of all the Pharaohs known to history, I had no idea there were so many. They ruled from at least 3100 BC (probably earlier) and maintained power through 343 BC (for native Egyptian Pharaohs) and through 30 BC (for the Greek appointed Pharaohs). With such a vast timeline, it shouldn’t have surprised me that the list was so long, but the focus on just a handful of them in documentaries and history books really impedes the perspective of just how long there was a “Pharaoh” in power in Egypt.

Some are only known or named from one or two obscure sources, and many are only listed as the number of years they ruled, making the exact timeframe impossible to determine, but educated estimates are possible using the context of those who ruled around them and what other recorded events took place during their reign.

I compiled this list for two reasons: One, to place the better-known Pharaohs in context of the time they existed; and two, to emphasize what a long history the Pharaoh rulers had in Ancient Egypt, one that was much greater than I had previously understood.

Legendary Period: “The Beginning”

These were the eight “God Kings” who were said to have ruled Egypt “from the beginning.” Their names come from two different sources, one called the “Turin List” and one called the “Manetho List.”

Turin List NameManetho List NameFunction
PtahHephaestusCraftsmen & Creation
RaHeliosSun
ShuSosis / AgathosdaimonAir
GebChronosEarth
OsirisOsirisAfterlife
SetTyphonEvil
HorusHorusWar
Thoth[N/A]Knowledge
Ma’at[N/A]Order

Following these “God Kings” were three sets of semi-divine, or demigod, rulers. The Second Dynasty of Gods ruled for an unknown amount of time; the 3 Achu-Dynasties (consisting of 30 Kings from Memphis) ruled for an alleged 1,790 years, and the Dynasty Disciples of Horus (consisting of 10 Kings from This) ruled for an alleged 350 years.

Archaic Period

The beginning of this period consisted of the “Early Dynastic” era, when Lower Egypt & Upper Egypt were ruled as separate kingdoms. Lower Egypt consisted of the northern part of the Nile River and the Nile River Delta. Upper Egypt was comprised of the southern part of the Nile River and the deserts of Egypt.

Early Dynastic: Lower Egypt (c. 3200-3100 BC)

These rulers are only sourced to something called the Palermo Stone, a large (but incomplete due to damage) rock slab that contained the first rulers through the Fifth Dynasty. They are estimated to have ruled around 3100 BC or earlier.

  • Hsekiu
  • Khayu
  • Tlu
  • Thesh
  • Neheb
  • Wazner
  • Mekh

Early Dynastic: Upper Egypt (c. 3200-3100 BC)

These rulers are estimated to have held command around the time of 3200-3100 BC. The last on the list, Narmer, is said to have been the ruler who combined Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom.

  • Scorpion I
  • Iry-Hor
  • Ka
  • King Scorpion
  • Narmer

First Dynasty (c. 3100-2890 BC)

  • Narmer (3100 BC)
  • Hor-Aha (3050 BC)
  • Djer (41 years)
  • Djet (23 years)
  • Merneith (Unknown)
  • Den (14-20 years)
  • Anedjib (10 years)
  • Semerkhet (9 years)
  • Qa’a (2916-2890 BC)

Second Dynasty (c. 2890-2686 BC)

  • Hotepsekhemwy (38 years)
  • Raneb (39 years)
  • Nynetjer (40 years)
  • Weneg (8 years)
  • Senedj (20 years)
  • Seth-Peribsen (17 years)
  • Sekhemib-Perenmaat (Unknown)
  • Khasekhemwy (17-18 years; Ended c. 2686 BC)

Old Kingdom

This was the first of three “Kingdom Periods” that delineate important periods of civilization in Egypt. The Old Kingdom period took place from approximately 2686 BC at the beginning of the Third Dynasty until 2181 BC at the end of the Sixth Dynasty. The royal capital was located at Memphis. A large number of pyramids were constructed during the Old Kingdom.

Third Dynasty (c. 2686-2613 BC)

  • Sanakhte (2686-2668 BC)
  • Djoser (2668-2649 BC)
    • Step Pyramid constructed by Imhotep, Chancellor to the Pharaoh
  • Sekhemkhet (2649-2643 BC)
  • Khaba (2643-2637 BC)
  • Qahedjet (Unknown)
  • Huni (2637-2613 BC)

Fourth Dynasty (c. 2613-2498 BC)

This era included the construction of the Great Pyramids.

  • Sneferu (2613-2589 BC)
    • Bent Pyramid (normal angle at bottom, inclines sharply at top)
    • Red Pyramid (first “True Pyramid” in shape)
  • Khufu (2589-2566 BC)
    • Great Pyramid of Giza
  • Djedefra (Radjedef) (2566-2558 BC)
    • May have created/designed the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his father.
    • Pyramid at Abu Rawash (no longer intact, materials stolen by Romans)
  • Khafra (2558-2532)
    • Oversaw construction of Sphinx of Giza
    • His pyramid is second largest in Giza
  • Bikheris (Unknown)
  • Menkaura (2532-2503 BC)
    • Third, and smallest, pyramid in Giza.
  • Shepseskaf (2503-2498 BC)
    • Built Mastabat el-Fara’un instead of a pyramid.
  • Dejedefptah (Unknown)
  • Thampthis (Unknown)

Fifth Dynasty (c. 2498-2345 BC)

  • Userkaf (2498-2491 BC)
    • Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara
  • Sahure (2490-2477 BC)
    • Moved the Royal Necropolis to Abusir
  • Neferirkare Kakai (2477-2467 BC)
  • Shepseskare Isi (2467-2460 BC)
  • Neferefre (2460-2425 BC)
  • Nyuserre Ini (2425-2422 BC)
  • Djedkare Isesi (2414-2375 BC)
  • Unas (2375-2345 BC)

Sixth Dynasty (c. 2345-2181 BC)

  • Teti (2345-2333 BC)
    • There is speculation that he was murdered by his successor.
  • Meryre Pepi I (2332-2283)
  • Merenre Nemtyemsaf I (2283-2278 BC)
  • Neferkare Pepi II (2278-2184)
    • These were only mentioned in sparse sources; may refer to the same person:
      • Neferka (2200-2199)
      • Nefer (2197-2193)
      • Aba (2193-2176)
      • Merenre Nemtyemsaf II (2184)
      • Neitiqerty Siptah (2184-2181)

First Intermediate Period

This took place from about 2181-2060 BC, in between the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom. The Old Kingdom collapsed following the rule of Neferkare Pepi II, who ruled for 94 years and was very ineffective towards the end of his life (and reign). The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart, leading to famine in multiple regions.

About 2160 BC, a new lineage of Pharaohs attempted to reunite Lower Egypt in Herakleopolis Magna; a rival lineage in Thebes attempted to do the same for Upper Egypt.

Seventh & Eighth Dynasties (Combined) (c. 2181-2160 BC)

  • Neferkara I
  • Netjerkare
  • Menkare
  • Neferkare II
  • Neferkare II Nebi
  • Djedkara Shemai
  • Neferkare IV Khendu
  • Merenhor
  • Neferkamin Seneferka
  • Nikara
  • Neferkare V Tereu
  • Neferkahor
  • Keferkare VI Pepyseneb
  • Neferkamin Anu
  • Qakare Ibi (2169-2167 BC)
    • Built the last pyramid at Saqqara)
  • Neferkara II (2167-2163 BC)
  • Keferkawhor Khuwihap (2163-2161 BC)
  • Neferirkara (2161-2160 BC)

Ninth Dynasty (c. 2160-2130 BC)

The Turin List says that 18 kings ruled during the ninth and tenth dynasties, but twelve of those names are missing, and four are only partial names.

  • (Unknown) (2160 – ? BC)
  • (Unknown)
  • Neferkare III
  • Khety Acthoes II
  • Senenh / Setut
  • (Unknown)
  • Meribre Khety
  • Shed-
  • H– (? – 2130 BC)

Tenth Dynasty (c. 2130-2040 BC)

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group ruling over Lower Egypt.

  • Meryhathor (2310 – ? BC)
  • Neferkare IV
  • Wankare Acthoes III
  • Merykare (? – 2040 BC)

Eleventh Dynasty (c. 2134-1991 BC)

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group ruling over Upper Egypt.

  • Mentuhotep I (?-?)
  • Sehertawy Intef I (2134-2117 BC)
  • Wahankh Intef II (2117-2069 BC)
  • Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III (2069-2060 BC)
  • Unknown

Middle Kingdom

Around 2055 BC, a descendant of Pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan Pharaohs, leading to a reunion of the Upper and Lower lands of Egypt under one ruler.

This era is noted for the expansion of trade outside the kingdom. While a good idea in theory, it opened them up to attack, leading to an invasion from the Hyksos people of the Eastern Nile Delta in Middle Egypt.

Eleventh Dynasty Continued (c. 2134-1991 BC)

  • Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II (2060-2010 BC)
    • Gained all of Egypt in 2040, beginning the Middle Kingdom
  • Sankhkare Mentuhotep III (2010-1998 BC)
    • Commanded the first expedition to Punt
  • Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV (1997-1991 BC)

Twelfth Dynasty (c. 1991-1802 BC)

Many Egyptian scholars consider this the greatest of all Egyptian dynasties.

  • Sehetepibre Amenemhat I (1991-1962 BC)
    • Seized power after overthrowing Mentuhotep IV.
  • Kheperkare Senusret I (Sesostris I) (1971-1926 BC)
    • Built the White Chapel
  • Nubkaure Amenemhat II
  • Khakheperre Senusret II (Sesostris II) (1897-1878 BC)
  • Khakaure Senusret III (Sesostris III) (1878-1860 BC)
    • Most powerful of Middle King rulers.
  • Nimaatre Amenemhat III (1860-1815 BC)
  • Maakherure Amenemhat (1815-1807 BC)
  • Sobekkare Sobekneferu (1807-1802)
    • Female Ruler

Second Intermediate Period

This was another period of disarray amongst the rulers and the Egyptian people. The Twelfth Dynasty lost control over much of the land of Egypt. This caused the ruling family of Xois on the Western Nile Delta to break away and form their own dynasty.

The era is best defined by the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties of the Hyksos people. Around 1720 BC they took over the town of Avaris (Tell el-Dab’a) and began the Fifteenth Dynasty. The Hyksos took over Memphis shortly thereafter, causing the Egyptian rulers in Thebes to declare independence and begin the Seventeenth Dynasty, eventually pushing the Hyksos back towards Asia.

Thirteenth Dynasty (c. 1802-1649 BC)

  • Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep (1802-1799 BC)
    • Reign is attested by several documents of the time.
  • Sekhemkare (1799-1795 BC)
  • Amenemhat (1795-1792 BC)
  • Sehetepre (1792-1790 BC)
  • Iufni
  • Seankhibre
  • Semenkare
  • Sehetepre
  • Sewadjkare
  • Nedjemibre (7 months)
  • Khaankhre Sobekhotep I
  • Renseneb (4 months)
  • Awybre Hor I (1775)
    • Ka Statue
  • Sedjefakare (5-7 years)
  • Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep (1767 BC)
  • Khendjer (4 years +)
  • Imyremeshaw
  • Antef V
  • Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III (4 years)
  • Khasekhemre Neferhotep I (11 years)
  • Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV (10-11 years)
  • Khahotepre Sobekhotep V (1740-1730 BC)
  • Wahibre Ibiau (1725-1714 BC)
  • Merneferre Ay (1714-1691 BC)
  • Sankhenre Sewadjtu
  • Mersekhemre Ini
  • Sewadjkare Hori
  • Unknown Placement:
    • Dedumose I
    • Dedumose II
    • Senebmiu
    • Mentuhotep V
    • Senaaib

Fourteenth Dynasty (c. 1705-1690 BC)

  • Nehesy
  • Khakherewre
  • Nebefawre
  • Sehebre
  • Merdjefare
  • Sewadjkare
  • Nebdjefare
  • Webenre
  • (Unknown)
  • Djefare
  • Webenre
  • Unknown Placement:
    • Shesh
    • Yakubher

Fifteenth Dynasty (c. 1674-1535 BC)

  • Salitis
  • Sakir-Har
  • Khyan (30-40 years)
  • Apepi (40 years +)
  • Khamudi (1555-1544 BC)

Sixteenth Dynasty (Thebes Rulers, abt. 80-100 yrs)

  • (Unknown First King)
  • Djehuti (Sekhemresementawy) (3 years)
  • Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemreseusertawy) (16 years)
  • Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) (1 year)
  • Mentuhotep VI (Sankhenre) (1 year)
  • Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenre) (26 years)
  • Nebiriau II
  • Semenre
  • Bebiankh (Seuserenre) (12 years)
  • Sekhemre Shedwast
  • (Five More Unknown Kings Here)

Seventeenth Dynasty (c. 1650-1550 BC; Upper Egypt)

  • Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep (1620 BC)
  • Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I (7 years +)
  • Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf
  • Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef
  • Nubkheperre Intef (3 years +)
  • Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef
  • Senakhtenre Ahmose
  • Seqenenre Tao
    • Died in battle against the Hyksos.
  • Kamose
    • Died in battle against the Hyksos.

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom era ranged from about 1550-1077 BC. This era saw the largest increase in territory added to the kingdom, aided by military dominance. The expansion included Nubia in the south and large territories in the Near East.

Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1292 BC)

  • Nebpehtire Ahmose I / Ahmosis I (1550-1525 BC)
  • Djeserkare Amenhotep I (1541-1520 BC)
  • Aakheperkare Thutmose I (1520-1492 BC)
  • Aakheperenre Thutmose II (1492-1479 BC)
  • Menkheperre Thutmose III
    • “Napoleon of Egypt”
  • Maatkare Hatshepsut (1473-1458)
    • Either the Second or Seventh Female Ruler, depending on source.
  • Aakheperrure Amenhotep II (1425-1400 BC)
  • Menkheperure Thutmose IV (1400-1390 BC)
  • Nebmaatre Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BC)
    • “The Magnificent King”
    • “Lord of the Truth is Ra”
    • Largest ever mortuary temple; destroyed by Rameses II
    • DNA testing shows him to be the Grandfather of Tutankhamun
  • Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten (1352-1334 BC)
    • Found of solar-centered religion called Atenism
  • Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (1334-1333 BC)
    • Disputes over identity. Some say a son or son-in-law of Akhenaten, but sometimes identified as NefertitI (Akhenaten’s wife). Others still believe it may have been Akhenaten’s eldest daughter, Meritaten.
  • Nebkheperure Tutankhaten / Tutankhamun (1333-1324 BC)
    • Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten
    • Likely the one who reinstated polytheistic religion.
  • Kheperkheperure Ay (1324-1320 BC)
  • Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb (1320-1292 BC)
    • Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun

Nineteenth Dynasty (1292-1186 BC)

  • Menpehtire Ramesses I (1292-1290 BC)
  • Menmaatre Seti I (1290-1279 BC)
  • Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great (1279-1213 BC)
    • Typically associated with Moses, who reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which a peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC.
  • Banenre Merenptah (1213-1203 BC)
    • Ancient texts recalling his military campaigns in Libya and Canaan contain the only reference to “Israel” in Ancient Egyptian records.
  • Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse (1203-1200 BC)
  • Userkheperure Seti II (1203-1197 BC)
  • Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah (1197-1191 BC)
  • Satre-merenamun Tausret (1191-1190)
    • Also known as Tawosret. Probably the wife of Seti II.

Twentieth Dynasty (1190-1077 BC)

  • Userkhaure Setnakht (1190-1186 BC)
  • Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III (1186-1155 BC)
    • Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC.
  • User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV (1155-1149 BC)
  • Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI (1145-1137 BC)
  • Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII (1137-1130)
  • Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII (1130-1129 BC)
  • Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX (1129-1111 BC)
  • Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X (1111-1107)
  • Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI (1107-1077)
    • Ended rule while sharing power with the High Priest of Amun Herihor, who ruled in the south, and Smendes I, who ruled in the north.

Third Intermediate Period

This signified the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire. Several Libyan dynasties ruled during this era, giving it the nickname the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty (1069-943 BC)

This dynasty was based at Tanis and was mostly ineffective. They were rulers of all Egypt in name, but in practice were confined mostly to Lower Egypt.

  • Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjef (1077-1051 BC)
  • Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu (1051-1047 BC)
  • Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I) (1047-1001 BC)
  • Usermaatre Amenemope (1001-992 BC)
  • Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder) (992-986 BC)
  • Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun (986-967 BC)
  • Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II (967-943 BC)

Twenty-Second Dynasty (943-720 BC)

  • Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I (943-922 BC)
  • Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I (922-887 BC)
  • Heqakheperre Shoshenq II (887-885 BC)
  • Takelot I (885-872 BC)
  • Hedjkheperre Harsiese (880-860 BC)
    • A rebel/rival ruler, at Thebes
  • Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II (872-837 BC)
  • Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III (837-798 BC)
  • Shoshenq IV (798-785 BC)
  • Usermaatre-setepenre Pami (785-778 BC)
  • Aakheperre Shoshenq V (778-740 BC)
  • Aakheperre-setepenamun Osorkon IV (740-720 BC)

Twenty-Third Dynasty (837-735 BC)

  • Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II (837-813 BC)
  • Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast (826-801 BC)
    • A rebel who seized Thebes from Takelot II
  • Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I (812-811 BC)
  • Usermaatre Shoshenq VI (801-795 BC)
  • Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III (795-767 BC)
    • Son of Takelot II; he recovered Thebes and proclaimed himself King
  • Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III (773-764 BC)
  • Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun (765-762 BC)

The Libu – Non-Dynasty (805-732 BC)

The Libu were a group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Nile Delta.

  • Inamunnifnebu (805-795 BC)
  • (Unknown) (795-780 BC)
  • Niumateped (780-755 BC)
  • Titaru (763-755 BC)
  • Ker (755-750 BC)
  • Rudamon (750-745 BC)
  • Ankhor (745-736 BC)
  • Tefnakht (736-732 BC)

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty (732-720 BC)

  • Shepsesre Tefnakhte (732-725)
  • Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) (725-720 BC)

Late Period

The Late Period comprises the seven centuries from 732 BC to 30 BC. This includes rule from the Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians. Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC, officially ending the rule of Pharaohs.

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (732-656 BC)

The Nubians invaded Egypt in 732 BC and acquired the throne in Egypt. They were driven back into Nubia, where they established their own kingdom at Napata (c. 656-590 BC).

  • Usermaatre Piye (747-716 BC)
    • King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th Year.
  • Neferkare Shabaka (716-702 BC)
  • Djedkaure Shebitku (702-690 BC)
  • Khuinefertemre Taharqa (690-664 BC)
  • Bakare Tantamani (664-653 BC)
    • Lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his territory of rule into Thebes.

Twenty-Sixth Dynasty (672-525 BC)

  • Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I) (672-664 BC)
  • Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I) (694-610 BC)
  • Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II) (610-595 BC)
  • Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II) (595-589 BC)
  • Haaibre Wahibre (Apries) (589-570 BC)
  • Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis) (570-526 BC)
  • Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III) (526-525 BC)

Twenty-Seventh Dynasty (525-404 BC)

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC. The Persian / Achaemenid Shahs were recognized as Pharaohs during this time, and are included in the Twenty-Seventh Dynasty for this reason.

  • Metsuire Cambyses (Cambyses II) (525-521 BC)
    • Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium, 525 BC.
  • Smerdis (Bardiya) (522-521 BC)
    • Son of Cyrus the Great
  • Setutre Darius I the Great (521-486 BC)
  • Xerxes I the Great (486-465 BC)
  • Artabanus the Hyrcanian (465-464 BC)
  • Artaxerxes I Longhand (464-424 BC)
  • Xerxes II (424-423 BC)
    • Contested Claim
  • Sogdianus (424-423 BC)
    • Contested Claim
  • Darius II (424-404 BC)

Twenty-Eighth Dynasty (404-398 BC)

This dynasty only had one Pharaoh; he was a descendant of the Saite Pharaohs of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. He led a successful revolt against the Persians.

  • Amyrtaeus (404-398 BC)

Twenty-Ninth Dynasty (398-380 BC)

  • Baenre Nefaarud I (Nepherites) (398-393 BC)
  • Psammuthes (393 BC)
  • Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris) (393-380 BC)
  • Nefaarud II (380 BC)

Thirtieth Dynasty (380-343 BC)

  • Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I) (380-362 BC)
  • Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos) (362-360 BC)
  • Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II) (360-343 BC)
    • Last native Egyptian ruler of ancient Egypt.

Thirty-First Dynasty (343-332 BC)

This was another era of rule from the Achaemenid Persians.

  • Artaxerxes III (343-338 BC)
  • Artaxerxes IV (Arses) (338-336 BC)
    • Only ruled in Lower Egypt.
  • Khababash (338-335 BC)
    • Initiated a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt.
  • Darius III (336-332 BC)
    • Upper Egypt now under Persian rule as well.

Argead Dynasty (332-309 BC)

The beginning of the Hellenistic era; the Macedonians conquered both Persia and Egypt.

  • Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great) (332-323 BC)
  • Philip III Arrhidaeus (323-317 BC)
    • “Feeble-minded” brother of Alexander III
  • Haaibre Alexander IV (317-309 BC)
    • The son of Alexander III and Roxana

Ptolemaic Dynasty (305-30 BC)

The second, and longer, stretch of the Hellenistic era in Egypt. THe Ptolemies ruled Egypt until 30 BC when it became a province of Rome. Overlapping dates indicate a co-regency.

  • Ptolemy I Soter (Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy) (305-285 BC)
  • Berenice I (? – 285 BC)
    • Wife of Ptolemy I
  • Ptolemy II Philadelphos (Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy) (288-246 BC)
  • Arsinoe I (284/81-274 BC)
    • Wife of Ptolemy II
  • Arsinoe II (277-270 BC)
    • Also Wife of Ptolemy II
  • Ptolemy III Euergetes I (246-222 BC)
  • Berenice II (244-222 BC)
    • Wife of Ptolemy III
  • Ptolemy IV Philopator (222-204 BC)
  • Arsinoe III (220-204 BC)
    • Wife of Ptolemy IV
  • Hugronaphor (205-199 BC)
    • Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South
  • Ankhmakis (199-185 BC)
    • Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South
  • Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204-180 BC)
    • Upper Egypt in Revolt 207-186 BC
  • Cleopatra I (193-176 BC)
    • Wife of Ptolemy V
    • Co-Regent with Ptolemy VI
  • Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-164 BC)
  • Cleopatra II (173-164 BC)
    • Wife of Ptolemy VI
  • Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (171-163 BC)
    • Proclaimed king by Alexandria in 170 BC
    • Ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II from 169-164 BC
  • Ptolemy VI Philometor (163-145 BC)
    • Restored to throne
  • Cleopatra II (163-127 BC)
    • Married Ptolemy VIII
    • Led revolt against Ptolemy VIII in 131 BC
    • Became sole ruler of Egypt
  • Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator (145-144)
    • Proclaimed co-ruler by his father.
  • Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (145-131 BC)
    • Restored to throne
  • Cleopatra III (142-131 BC)
    • Second wife of Ptolemy VIII
  • Ptolemy Memphitis (131 BC)
    • Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II
    • Promptly killed by Ptolemy VIII
  • Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (127-116 BC)
    • Restored to throne
  • Cleopatra III (127-107 BC)
    • Restored with Ptolemy VIII
    • Co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X
  • Cleopatra II (124-116 BC)
    • Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII
    • Co-Ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116 BC
  • Ptolemy IX Soter II (116-110 BC)
  • Cleopatra IV (116-115 BC)
    • Briefly married to Ptolemy IX
    • Pushed out by Cleopatra III
  • Ptolemy X Alexander I (110-109 BC)
  • Berenice III (81-80 BC)
    • Forced to marry Ptolemy XI
    • Murdered by his command 19 days later
  • Ptolemy XI Alexander II (80 BC)
    • Son of Ptolemy X Alexander I
    • Ruled for 80 Days before being lynched for killing Berenice III
  • Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) (80-58 BC)
    • Son of Ptolemy IX
  • Cleopatra V Tryphaena (79-68 BC)
    • Wife of Ptolemy XII
    • Mother of Berenice IV
  • Cleopatra VI (58-57 BC)
    • Daughter of Ptolemy XII
  • Berenice IV (58-55 BC)
    • Daughter of Ptolemy XII
    • Forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes; had him strangled to death
    • Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC
  • Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (55-51 BC)
    • Restored to throne
    • Joint rule briefly with daughter Cleopatra VII
  • Cleopatra VII – (51-30 BC)
    • “THE” Cleopatra who had affairs with Mark Antony and Julius Caesar
    • Ruled jointly with father Ptolemy XII, brother Ptolemy XIII, brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and son Ptolemy XV.
  • Ptolemy XIII (51-47 BC)
    • Brother of Cleopatra VII
  • Arsinoe IV (48-47 BC)
    • In opposition to Cleopatra VII
  • Ptolemy XIV (47-44 BC)
    • Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII
  • Ptolemy XV (44-30 BC)
    • Young son of Cleopatra VII; was 3 years old when proclaimed co-ruler
    • Last known ruler of Ancient Egypt before total Roman control.

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